June 6, 2012 § 1 Comment
It seems there’s no escape from all things Scandinavian at the moment. In restaurants, Noma in Copenhagen is at the top of 50 Best Restaurants list for the 2nd year, and Faviken is the new cutting-edge place that has the food critics flocking across the Swedish tundra.
When it comes to cookbooks, you can take your pick from Nordic Bakery, Camilla Plum’s Scandinavian Kitchen or Signe Johansen’s Scandilicious. And that’s without getting to The Killing and that famous jumper.
At the forefront of this wave is Signe Johansen. From Norway, but having lived in the UK for 13 years, with her blog and her first book ‘Scandilicious’, she’s melded Scandi tastes with British preferences to create recipes that are approachable and easy, and bring fresh new flavours into the kitchen.
When I saw that she was offering a Baking Masterclass, with recipes from her new book, Scandilicious Baking, I signed up pretty quickly. For one thing, I love to meet enthusiastic bakers and cooks that I’ve only met virtually through twitter and their blog posts. And there’s always something new to learn in baking, especially when dealing with that tricky beast, yeasted dough.
The venue was a new cooking school in East London, the Central Street Cookery School, part of the St. Luke’s Charitable Trust. It’s a light and airy space, with high ceilings, plenty of counter space and ovens, and well equipped for classes. Even better, income from hiring out the space supports cookery projects for the local community.
We cooked our way through four recipes, two of which were yeasted, in about 4 hours. We made a straight spelt bread dough, quite a bit stickier and faster to rise than a wheat dough. Next came super-sticky cinnamon buns, the dough enriched with butter, sugar, egg and ground cardamom. Again, these were made with spelt flour, and were quick to rise and prove. Below is a cinnamon bun cake made by jamming the bun dough into a cake tin to bake.
Third on the list was a fluffy cake, topped with almond caramel praline to form a crust. This is Toscakaka, a Swedish favourite. The cake is made like a Genoise, whisking whole eggs with sugar, before folding in flour and melted butter. Once baked, a sticky caramel of butter, sugar, cream and flaked almonds is spread on top before baking further to form a golden crust. It’s a delicious combination, and the Dream cake in Scandilicious, made in a similar way, has gone straight onto my ‘to make’ list.
Finally came super-short butter biscuits, made like pastry with chilled butter and just a little egg to bring them together. A very full morning’s baking. For lunch we feasted on Signe’s homemade gravlax with salad, and tried out some of the spelt bread.
The class was good fun, with a great atmosphere. Signe gave lots of helpful tips and advice as we went along, and there was time for everyone to get hands-on with the recipes. The cookery school at Central Street has only been open for a few months, and is a great space for classes. The counters are in a big U shape, with lots of counterspace for everyone, and the high ceilings kept everything cool until later in the session.
There was plenty to learn, even for experienced bakers. Using 100% spelt dough is new to me. When I use spelt flour, it tends to be in bread dough and not more than half of the total flour content. Using all spelt flour in a recipe tends to make for a stickier dough, that rises faster and doesn’t need to prove as long before baking. It feels different to handle, and I think would take some practice to get used to.
Spelt is actually a type of wheat, but split off from the wheat we now use at an earlier point in its history.
This means it has less gluten than normal bread flour, but still enough to make bread with. [Correction: Azelia has quire rightly corrected me here: it's not that spelt has less gluten, but it is of a different type and can be tolerated better by those who have an intolerance to normal wheat. Coeliacs cannot tolerate spelt, because it still contains gluten]. You can also get pearled spelt or farro, which can be cooked a bit like pearl barley, but less sticky, and can be used for risottos and salads. Both wholemeal and refined white spelt flours are readily available. Sharpham Park in Somerset produce great spelt flour, grown in the UK.
April 27, 2012 § 1 Comment
In the last post, I talked about shaping buns and rolls. In this one, I thought I would review some of the components of a great fruited bun recipe.
I like buns, I have a stash of home-made hot cross ones in the freezer at the moment, and I think, like Azelia, that you can make them all year around, not just for Easter. All you need to do is leave off the cross, and have them for breakfast, a mid-morning snack, afternoon tea or something to finish the day when you get in late.
Before chemical leaveners, like baking powder and bicarbonate of soda became available, a bit of yeasted bread, perhaps with extra butter and sugar added to it, and some currants thrown in, was what a cake was made of. Eliza Acton’s book ‘Modern Cookery for Private families’ , first published in 1845, featured many more yeast-risen buns and cakes than butter and sugar ones. Before sugar became inexpensive and easy to buy, adding dried fruit to bread was a good way to add sweetness. You can find these ancestors of modern cakes in every part of Britain. The Irish Barm Brack, Welsh Bara Brith and Scotch Black Bun were all based, at least originally, on a yeasted fruit bread. Some of these developed into tea breads and tea bracks, where cold tea was used to soak the fruit, and the whole mixed with flour and an egg to make a soft sliceable loaf.
Most fruit or spiced buns will aim for a soft texture, with a thin, soft crust, and a slightly sweet flavour, complemented by the fruit and spices. Getting a good soft texture can be tricky, especially if you’re used to making bread with thick crusts and open, holey textures.
Here are the important elements for a fruit bun dough that I’ve assembled from advice in a whole series of sources (see References), as well as my experiences.
I used to make bread and discover that although the result seemed pleasing, sometimes the coarse, rustic nature of the bread, with big jagged holes and chewy crumb, wasn’t what I was after. What I needed for those loaves was a little fat. Even just a tablespoon of oil will make a big difference to the softness of the bread. A small amount of fat is needed for fruit buns – butter is good – to keep the crumb soft, and also to make sure it stays soft a little beyond the first day.
You can rub butter or another hard fat into the flour at the start of mixing, or add melted butter or oil with the liquid to the flour. In both cases, the fat will be evenly distributed and will have the effect of coating the flour granules. This gives them a little raincoat, waterproofing them a little so that the water on those granules doesn’t create gluten, or creates less of it. Remember, flour + water + time = gluten.
The effect of this in the finished loaf or roll is to give you a softer crumb, something that feels fluffier. For some reason, it also helps the bread to last after it’s baked, keeping it soft for longer, and delaying staling.
You can also use fat to coat the dough at the shaping stage, giving you separate pieces of pull-apart dough when it is baked. This is what helps to separate the layers in a Chelsea or a cinnamon bun, and what makes monkey bread pull apart. Those streaks of fat prevent the dough from meeting and sticking together, so you still have separate pieces of dough, nestled into each other.
You can also get the effect of a soft crumb by doing something different to part of the flour: heating it to explode the starch granules. When you make a roux or a white sauce, you heat the flour with butter, then add milk (or stock) and create a thickened sauce. The thickening comes from the starch granules that burst in the heat and swell with the water added to them. This starchy gel can be used, when cooled, as an ingredient to make fluffy white rolls or burger buns. (Dan Lepard has a great recipe that he developed for the Hawksmoor restaurants).
Small amounts of sugar will speed the dough along as well as sweetening it, so be careful that it doesn’t over-rise or over-prove, and then collapse. However, larger amounts act to dehydrate the yeast cells, slowing down their growth. For this reason, be careful when adjusting the amount of sugar in a recipe, and keep a careful eye on the dough as it rises – if it over-rises before you can get to it, you may find the yeast is exhausted before it can get to the final rise.
Dried fruit can absorb moisture from the dough as it rises, drying things out. For this reason, you can soak the fruit overnight first, as Dan Lepard does in his stout buns recipe in ‘Short and Sweet‘. Alternatively, you can increase the liquid in the recipe to compensate. Fruit also adds sweetness, and will not affect the yeast in the same way as sugar added directly to the dough (I think), so it can be a good way to make a sweeter bun without affecting the yeast too much.
Of course, you can always make a fruit bun without fruit – using just spices or perhaps chocolate chips, as they do at Gail’s bakery for their Soho bun.
Spices including cinnamon and cloves have an anti-microbial effect, so they will slow down the yeast, by killing off or slowing a proportion of the cells. A long, slow rise before you add the spices can help giving the yeast time to get going. Or the spices can be rippled through when shaping, as they are when making Chelsea buns or cinnamon rolls.
Milk seems to be beneficial for soft buns, but I can’t really pin down the reasons why. Harold McGee does highlight that scalding the milk and then cooling it before using in the dough helps to destroy an enzyme that would otherwise interfere.
Elizabeth David notes Eliza Acton’s insistence that milk makes a big difference when you want bread or rolls with a thin, soft crust. This effect seems to be mainly due to the fat in the milk.
Some good fruit bun recipes:
and if you don’t want fruit you can always try:
- Elizabeth David’s English Bread and Yeast Cookery is a comprehensive look at all sorts of breadmaking, covering the role of different ingredients, the history, and lots and lots of recipes.
- Dan Lepard, ‘Short and Sweet‘ is full of all sorts of baking recipes and advice, but has good section on sweet breads, including fruit buns, teacakes and sticky buns.
- Harold McGee, ‘On Food And Cooking‘ is the bible for finding out exactly what’s happening with your ingredients and recipes
April 22, 2012 § Leave a comment
There are many types of bread that you might want to make into rolls. Enriched doughs can make soft white baps or burger buns. Fruited and spiced doughs can make hot cross buns, teacakes or cinnamon rolls.
Getting neat and even shapes for these things can be tricky. Yeasted dough which has just has its first rise can be puffy and uneven.
Going from that lumpy mass to a tray of neat and even shapes can take a little practice.
I recorded some video of making rolls some time ago, and I have now finally got around to editing it together with some instructions to show the steps involved:
In addition to the video, I wrote a few tips that provide some more detail:
- Make sure you dimple and pat the dough down to remove and redistribute the large air bubbles. You don’t need to ‘punch it down’ as some recipes say, but you do want to make the texture of the dough more even so that you can create even shapes out of it. You can also
- Use this process to make a symettrical shape out of the dough which will make it easier to divide into even pieces. This can be a rectangle, a round boule shape or a long stick. You can also weigh the pieces as you cut them off to be sure they are even.
- Try and preserve the skin of the dough when you’re shaping. This is a tip I got from this video of Richard Bertinet with Tim Hayward. The surface of the dough after it has risen is smooth and even. If you can use that surface as the outside edge of all your rolls, it will make it easier to get a smooth surface.
- Start with this smooth section face down for each piece of dough, and draw the edges into the centre to make a ball.
- To tighten the surface of the dough and make a really neat round shape, you should rotate the dough on the work surface. This motion (demonstrated in the video) draws the surface of the dough down, stretching it out and tucking it under at the same time.
- Place the rolls and buns a little distance apart on a baking sheet. When they start to touch, you will know they have risen enough to bake.
- To get really crusty bread, you should start at a high temperature, and then turn down and bake for longer at a low temperature. With rolls you’re usually after a soft texture and thin crust, so bake at a fairly hot temperature – 200C or so – and don’t overbake or the crust will start to dry out. Little buns might need only 10 minutes; larger burger buns more like 20 minutes.
April 18, 2011 § 3 Comments
I’m going to give cakes a bit of a break – too much sugar around here. Instead, let’s turn to bread. Bread is probably the baking area with the greatest gap between myth and reality. It seems hard and unachievable, the sort of thing only crazy obsessives or domestic goddesses attempt. Actually the process is easier than making a cake.
So how did breadmaking acquire this intimidating aura? A few things get in the way:
It takes time
Unlike the soda bread, which came together in just an hour, yeasted bread will need at least 2 or 3 hours from start to eating. However, for most of that time, you don’t need to do anything. What you really need is a few hours when you’ll be at home so you can dip in and out of the process. One useful thing is to make bread while you’re making something else like a casserole. That allows you to chop some carrots or stir the pot while you’re waiting for the next bread step.
You can even stretch the time out so you can start it off one evening and continue the following morning or even the next evening. There are a number of tricks to use to speed up or slow down the dough and make it work to your schedule.
Briefly, you can speed things up by using more yeast or by keeping everything warm so the yeast multiplies faster. Conversely, you can slow things down by starting with less yeast or using the fridge to store the dough for a while.
It’s not predictable
Cakes can be tricky, but you can have a reasonable expectation that if you use the right ingredients, weighed accurately, and baked at the right temperature, it should do exactly what it’s supposed to. Bread making is more unpredictable, in that factors that are hard for you to control at home (like room temperature and humidity) have a much greater influence. This is fundamentally because you’re cultivating a live organism, the yeast, to do the work of aerating the bread. It’s more like gardening than cooking. The trick lies in understanding the processes and recognising what they look like, so you can proceed until the dough is ready, rather than watching the clock.
You need to know what you’re aiming for
One reason people can be disappointed with their breadmaking is that it isn’t like their favourite bought type, and there are many different types of bread. Whether you like rough, chewy sourdough, nutty wholemeal sandwich loaves or soft white rolls, you can create each of them at home, but you’ll need to use not just a different recipe but a different approach for each one.
So, with that in mind, this recipe is for a white loaf with a crust that can be baked in a loaf tin, on a baking sheet or in a pot to make a round ‘boule’ shape.
- Wooden spoon
- A little sharp knife
- A large round casserole dish with a lid (Pyrex or cast iron – it needs to be able to withstand high temperatures)
For the best first-time results, I would recommend the casserole approach, but you can also use a preheated baking sheet, or a loaf tin and put a roasting tin of hot water on the shelf beneath to create steam.
- 500g strong white bread flour
- 300g water
- 3 tsp dried yeast, or one sachet
- 1 1/2 tsp sea salt
- 1 tbsp olive oil or vegetable oil
I’ve covered lots of other tips and tricks for making bread in a previous post, so I’ll go through the recipe fairly straight. This method is adapted from Dan Lepard’s technique and a really great blog post by Azelia’s Kitchen.
Put the flour, yeast and salt into a bowl and mix briefly to distribute the yeast and salt. Add the oil and water. The water doesn’t need to be warm, but if you want things to move fast, then that will help. Mix into a rough dough with a spoon, stopping when there’s no more dry flour.
Cover the bowl with a tea towel and leave for 10 minutes. This step starts the gluten working (remember that water + flour = gluten) by allowing the flour time to absorb the water properly.
Instead of kneading to develop the gluten, this approach folds the dough to develop and stretch the gluten. You can do this in the bowl if you’re short of space, but it’s a little easier to do on the counter. If you’re putting it on the counter, use oil rather than flour to prevent the dough from sticking. This means you won’t change the overall balance between flour and water in the recipe.
Just scrape all the dough out, push it into a single ball and then fold each side into the centre, as if it had 4 sides. Do this three times, for 12 folds in all. This should create a nice tight ball, with a smooth surface on the side away from the folds.
Turn the dough so the smooth side faces up in the bowl. Cover the bowl with cling film and leave to rise for a few hours or until doubled in size. To speed this up, put the bowl in a warm place, or to slow it down, if you need to leave it alone and come back later, put it into the fridge. If you do that, you’ll need to let it come back to room temperature before you carry on.
Once it has risen, it will be very puffy, with big bubbles. To redistribute these and form the shape of the loaf, scrape the dough out of the bowl onto a floured counter. Try to make sure the smooth upper surface is preserved, and ends up face down on the counter. Press all over with your fingertips to push down the big bubbles and flatten the dough slightly. Fold the sides into the centre again to reform the ball.
Put the dough onto a floured tea towel, this time smooth side down. Fold the towel over it, and leave to rise again, for somewhere between 30 minutes and an hour, until it’s expanded again and become puffy again.
While the dough is proving, put a large casserole dish with a lid into the oven (Pyrex or cast iron are good). A good 20 minutes before you think the dough will be done (start after 20 minutes if you’re not sure) turn the oven on and set to 220c or 200c for a fan oven.
Once you’re ready to bake, take the scorching hot pot out of the oven, remove the lid and tip the dough, fold-side down, into the hot pot. Use a small sharp knife to slash the top of the dough. Replace the lid (don’t forget to use oven gloves) and put into the oven. Bake for 30 minutes, then remove the lid and bake for another 15 or 20 minutes to get the top brown.
Tip out onto a rack and leave to cool. Be as patient as you can – important things happen to the interior of the loaf as it cools, and you’ll find it is quite doughy if you cut it early.
The bread will keep well for a couple of days because of the oil in it, but if you don’t think you’ll get through it wrap the whole loaf or a half before freezing. You can also hand-slice it and then freeze so you can toast it straight from the freezer.
June 27, 2010 § Leave a comment
As a follow up to my post on bread, I just wanted to point out Dan Lepard’s excellent video of reviving a lump of frozen sourdough into an active starter:
Great to see it in action. For anyone wondering, sourdough is simply bread leavened with yeasts from the air and the flour, raised into a starter that you keep alive, instead of by adding dried or fresh yeast. Freezing this mixture is a great way to be able to make sourdough without having to do it every week to keep the starter active. I have some rye starter in my fridge right now, and I’m going to have a go at freezing some this week – will let you know how it goes.
June 23, 2010 § 1 Comment
Whole books are written about making bread (I should know, I own quite a few of them). It is often seen as something quite daunting – a serious, difficult topic, with a major sense of accomplishment from producing a loaf. And while there is definitely a ‘staff of life’ thrill about producing your own loaf, bread is unusually accommodating, and will cope with a surprisingly wide amount of variation and approximation. So I thought I would try and distil the essentials down into a few principles, and see how few I could get away with. This list doesn’t talk about everything you need to know – that’s what all those books are for. And for more resources, see the end of the post. But hopefully these principles give some context for the stages in the recipe books, and more of a feel for what you’re aiming for.
- Any sort of baking with yeast means that you have to be flexible: you need to watch the dough and see what it does. This is why the instructions always give vague directions like ‘until the dough has doubled in size’ – that can take very different times depending on the amount of yeast you started with, the temperature, how much sugar the mixture has in, and many other factors. So you have to do what the dough says (at least up to a point – and see point 7)
- The basic process is: mix: to combine the ingredients; knead: to develop the gluten; rest: to allow the gluten to relax, and the yeast to develop air bubbles in it; shape: to redistribute the air bubbles and create the final loaf shape; proof: to let the final air bubbles reemerge; bake: to set the protein and give a nice brown crust.
- The ratio to use is 5 parts flour (by weight) to 3 parts of water. For example, 500g to 300g, with 1.5 tsp salt.
- Bread flour is useful but not essential. Plain flour is fine for many breads. Brown flours are harder to work with, and need more water.
- Adding fat to the dough makes the crumb softer – so if you want soft rolls, use milk instead of water, and add some butter; for a more rustic loaf, you don’t need to add any.
- You can use any amount of yeast – use a 1/4 tsp instant dried yeast, and let it rise over 18-24 hours, or 2 tsp for a very quick rise.
- If you want the process to happen slower, put it in the fridge; if you want it to work faster, put into a warm place. Use this along with the quantity of yeast to make the process happen at a speed to suit you.
- Kneading is optional – you can also leave the dough for a longer time – this will develop the gluten as well. However, kneading does repay the effort – you will almost always get something better out if you knead it a little more.
- You need to bake bread very hot – 200C/400F or more. About 45 minutes for a loaf made with 500g of flour, or 15-20 minutes for rolls.
Here is a video I made of me kneading bread. A couple of things to know: I started this dough off in the mixer, so it’s quite well developed here – when you start, it is much stickier and harder to handle.
Dan Lepard – bread baker extraordinaire, creator of loaves at Locanda Locatelli, Baker & Spice and many other locations. He has a lovely website with lots of useful resources, and writes every week in the Guardian – bread but also yummy cakes and biscuits. @dan_lepard on twitter.
Richard Bertinet – has a cooking school in Bath (which I keep meaning to go to) and has produced some great bread books, including Dough, which comes with a DVD of the kneading technique. @BertinetKitchen on twitter.
See also previous post on no-knead bread – really, no kneading required, but you do need to let it sit for at least 18 hours, so that the gluten can develop that way instead.
March 24, 2008 § 1 Comment
Aren’t these the ugliest baguettes you’ve ever seen? I think not careful enough punching down, and incomplete shaping are to blame. However, I’m hoping the big ugly bubbles on the surface are a promise of nice big irregular holes in the crumb. I’ll find out when we eat them next weekend (going into the freezer today).
Other things that came out of the Marston kitchen over the long Easter Weekend:
- Brasato (beef pot roast) from the Zuni Cafe Cookbook
- Fairy cakes with orange icing (How to be a Domestic Goddess)
- Banana splits with ice-cream and chocolate sauce (like on the Sainsburys ad)
- Camembert baked in the box
- Roast chicken, potatoes roasted in duck fat, spring cabbage
- Chocolate gingerbread from Nigella’s ‘Feast’
- Italian Spinach and Ham Tart from Jamie at Home (but without the ham… or the spinach..)
- Chocolate Granola from Orangette
December 29, 2006 § 2 Comments
Like the rest of the blog-o-sphere, I have been trying out Jim Lahey’s No Knead Bread recipe over recent weeks. This was first published (with video!) by Mark Bittman in the New York Times, and has since gone several times around the world via various blogs. I took the precaution of using Clothilde’s translation to grams, rather than those unreliable cups, having heard some reports of failures. This is my fourth go with it, and I have found it a very reliable recipe, consistently rising high and developing a very lovely crust. I have also combined it with some sourdough starter to get a slightly sour loaf. I am particularly enthusiastic about it as something that I can realistically tackle during the week, in just the time I have after work, between cooking dinner and eating dinner.
European No-Knead Bread
470g plain flour (I usually use half plain and half bread flour)
350g water = 350ml
10g salt – about 1.5 tsp
1/4 tsp yeast
Mix the salt and yeast into the flour in a large bowl so they are evenly distributed. Pour in the water and mix with your fingers just until you get a single doughy mass that pulls away from the bowl. Then stop. Scrape your fingers off, and cover the bowl with cling film or a tea towel, and leave on your kitchen counter for 12-18 hours. I have left it for 20 hours in a cool kitchen and it was fine. You can make this last thing at night and return to it the next day after work.
Scrape the dough out of the bowl with a spatula, onto a floured worktop. Press the dough down with your fingertips and fold the left side over one third, then the right (like folding a letter). Flatten the dough a little again and fold top to bottom in the same way.
Sprinkle a teatowel with flour and some cornmeal/polenta or wheat bran if you have it. Place the down seam side down on the towel, and fold the edges over it. Leave for 2 hours to rise again. After an hour and a half, take a Pyrex or cast iron casserole dish with a lid, and put it into the cold oven. Heat it as hot as it will go – as close to 250C as you can.
After the 2 hours are up, take out the casserole, use the towel to tip in the dough (you don’t have to be too delicate) and put the hot lid back on. Return to the oven for 30 minutes, then remove the lid and bake for 15 more minutes to brown the top and develop the crust further.
Then take it out and tip onto a wire rack. Allow it to cool before slicing – and eating with lots of butter!
August 23, 2005 § Leave a comment
A paste of ground wheat and water. Yeasts from the air land on the surface and start to grow and multiply. The yeast consumes the sugars from the wheat, and produces carbon dioxide. Bubbles appear. Bacteria also start to colonise the paste, feeding on other sugars that the yeast does not consume.
This dual colony grows, produces lactic acid, produces carbon dioxide. More flour is added, more water, a dough is made. The proteins in the flour join to make a long protein, which is developed by working the dough. it is stretched away, pulled back, turned. The surface becomes smooth, stretchy, soft. The yeast trapped within the proteins keeps growing, producing carbon dioxide. The bacteria keep growing, keep producing lactic acid. The dough swells, becomes puffy, pillowy. It is moulded, shaped, the surface tightens, dries. The dough is put into the warm oven. The yeast grows faster, the gases expand, the dough stretches. And then, the heat is higher, the yeast dies, the protein sets and stiffens. Moisture in the oven gelatinises the starch, creates a stiff shiny exterior. The starch caramelizes, browns, darkens.
And you have a loaf of bread. Just as the Egyptians would have made, just as the goldminers made in California, just as the French have been making for centuries. And it tastes good too.